Unit 7 Learning Objectives and Study Guide
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Unit 7: Developmental Psychology and Intelligence (chapters 13-14)
Learning Objective 1 (467-470): Special Considerations in Human Development — Gene Expression
1. What is developmental psychology? What kinds of research questions do developmental psychologists study?
2. What do nature and nurture refer to, with respect to influencing human development? What kinds of influences are based on nature? What kinds of influences are based on nurture?
3. What is the role of the environment in gene expression?
Learning Objective 2 (471-472): Conception and Prenatal Development: From Zygote to Baby — Premature Birth
1. What is a zygote? What event creates a zygote?
2. What are the three stages of prenatal development?
3. How does a blastocyst differ from a zygote?
4. What developmental changes take place during the embryonic stage?
5. What developmental changes take place during the fetal stage?
6. What is happening to the brain during the embryonic and much of the fetal stage?
7. What are teratogens? What are the most common teratogens? When are teratogens especially damaging?
8. In contrast to teratogen-induced disorders, how do genetic disorders originate?
Learning Objective 3 (472-474): Infant Motor Development: How Babies get Going — Factors Influencing Motor Development
1. What are reflexes, and what reflexes are present in newborn infants?
2. What is the developmental sequence of motor skills?
3. How do we explain the sequence and timing of motor skill development?
Learning Objective 4 (474-477): Growth and Physical Development throughout Childhood — Physical Development in Adulthood
1. What are growth spurts? What is the pattern of growth with respect to periods of spurts and periods without spurts?
2. What is puberty? What physical changes lead up to puberty?
3. What are primary sex characteristics? What are secondary sex characteristics?
4. What does menarche indicate? What does spermarche indicate?
5. What is menopause?
6. What happens to testosterone levels as men age?
Learning Objective 5 (478-479): Theories of Cognitive Development — Accommodation
1. Why is Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive development called a stage theory?
2. In Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, what is assimilation? What are some examples?
3. What is accommodation? What are some examples?
Learning Objective 6 (479-481): Piaget’s Stages of Development — Pros and Cons of Piaget’s Theory
1. What are the stages in Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, and approximately when does each begin?
2. How does a child experience the world during the sensorimotor stage?
3. What is object permanence? How is object permanence related to the sensorimotor stage?
4. How does egocentrism limit children’s mental abilities in the preoperational stage?
5. What is conservation? In which of Piaget’s stages do children begin to solve conservation problems?
6. What key mental abilities does Piaget claim children have at the concrete operational stage, and what key mental abilities are they lacking?
7. In which stage of Piaget’s theory do adolescents begin to engage in abstract and hypothetical thinking?
Learning Objective 7 (481-482): Vygotsky’s Theory: Social and Cultural Influences on Learning
1. According to Lev Vygotsky, how does a child’s culture and social environment influence cognitive development?
2. What is parental scaffolding?
3. How does the zone of proximal development relate to scaffolding?
Learning Objective 8 (482-486): Cognitive Landmarks of Early Development — Self-concept and the Concept of the “Other”
1. How have researchers shown object permanence in children as young as five months?
2. What is the so-called “Mozart Effect”? What scientific weaknesses are associated with the Mozart Effect?
3. What does a baby’s preference for video images of another baby’s face tell us about self-awareness?
4. What is a theory of mind? What does a child come to understand once they develop a theory of mind?
Learning Objective 9 (487-488): Cognitive Changes in Adolescence — Cognitive Function in Adulthood
1. How might brain development during adolescence help explain impulsive and risky behavior choices at this age? What is the “teen brain?” Which lobe of the brain is still maturing? What is a rival hypothesis to this explanation of impulsive and risky tendencies?
2. What happens to cognitive processing speed as we age?
3. Which aspects of cognitive function remain stable or improve with aging?
4. What is crystallized intelligence?
Learning Objective 10 (489-494): The Developing Personality: Social and Moral Development — Attachment Styles: The Strange Situation
1. What is temperament? What are different ways of characterizing temperamental styles?
2. What is attachment?
3. What is imprinting? What do imprinting studies suggest about human sensitivity for developing bonds of attachment?
4. Based on Harry Harlow’s experiment with newborn monkeys, how do reinforcement (by feeding) and physical comfort relate to attachment?
5. What is the Strange Situation, and for what is it used?
6. Describe the four different attachment patterns that infants typically display in the Strange Situation (Secure, Insecure-avoidant, Insecure-anxious, and Disorganized).
Learning Objective 11 (494-497): Influence of Parenting on Development — Self-Control: Learning to Inhibit Impulses
1. How do authoritarian parents interact with their children?
2. What are the characteristics of permissive parents?
3. How do authoritative parents interact with their children?
4. What are the characteristics of uninvolved parents?
5. How does authoritarian parenting influence children in cultures besides our own?
6. What are some of the behavioral differences shown by children living with a single father compared to children living with a single mother?
7. What are some of the difficulties in explaining the negative outcomes seen in children from single-parent families?
8. Which circumstances of divorce are associated with the worst effects on children?
9. What is self-control?
Learning Objective 12 (498-500): The Development of Gender Identity — Emerging Adulthood
1. What is gender identity?
2. What are gender roles?
3. What evidence suggests that gender preferences (for example, for toys) are biologically influenced? When do these gender-based preferences begin to emerge in children?
4. How does prenatal exposure to testosterone affect the behavior of girls?
5. What is an identity crisis? What risks are associated with unresolved crises, according to Erik Erikson?
6. What are the main characteristics of emerging adulthood?
Learning Objective 13 (500-502): Moral Development: Knowing Right from Wrong — Criticisms of Kohlberg’s Work
1. According to Jean Piaget, what is the relationship between cognitive and moral development?
2. How did Lawrence Kohlberg study children’s moral development?
3. Describe the moral reasoning typical of someone at Kohlberg’s preconventional level.
4. Describe the moral reasoning typical of someone at the conventional level.
5. Describe the moral reasoning typical of someone at the postconventional level.
6. What is the difference between moral behavior and moral reasoning? Why does this difference matter to Kohlberg’s critics?
Learning Objective 14 (502-505): Life Transitions in Adulthood — Social Transitions in Later Years
1. What are some of the effects on marital satisfaction when couples become parents?
2. Is there a midlife crisis?
3. What is the so-called “empty-nest syndrome,” and what circumstances make this transition less painful?
4. What are the differences between what we call biological age, psychological age, functional age, and social age?
Learning Objective 15 (512-515): What is Intelligence? Definitional Confusion — Intelligence as General versus Specific Abilities
1. Why was intelligence testing originally developed?
2. What do modern intelligence tests attempt to measure?
3. What is g (generalized intelligence), and what correlations does g try to explain?
4. What are s factors in intelligence?
Learning Objective 16 (515-518): Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence — The Triarchic Model
1. What are fluid and crystallized intelligences? How do they differ?
2. What is the association between crystallized intelligence and openness to experience?
3. How does Howard Gardner’s idea of multiple intelligences differ from g?
4. What are some problems associated with applying the idea of multiple intelligences to the classroom?
5. Why do scientific psychologists doubt the validity of Gardner’s claim of multiple intelligences?
6. What are the three components of Robert Sternberg’s triarchic model of intelligence?
Learning Objective 17 (518-520): Biological Bases of Intelligence — Pulling it all Together
1. How are brain size and intelligence related?
2. What is the association between the prefrontal cortex and intelligence?
3. What is the association between intelligence and working memory?
4. What is the association between the efficiency of mental processing and intelligence?
Learning Objective 18 (521-523): Exploring Genetic Influences on IQ — Adoption Studies
1. How can we study whether there are genetic influences on IQ? What is the main shortcoming of analyzing IQ scores within intact families?
2. How are twin studies on the genetic influence on IQ conducted, and what findings have come from twin studies?
3. What happens to heritability estimates of IQ when looking at children raised in poverty?
4. What have adoption studies found about the genetic influence on IQ?
Learning Objective 19 (523-527): Exploring Environmental Influences on IQ — Getting Smarter all the Time
1. How does Carol Dweck explain the importance of beliefs about intelligence flexibility or fixedness?
2. What does Robert Zajonc’s claim about birth order and IQ predict? What has research on it found?
3. What does the self-fulfilling prophecy do to expectations about a child’s IQ? What happens as a result?
4. What is the possible role of nutrition in the relationship between poverty and IQ?
5. What is the Flynn effect, and what are the likely explanations for it?
Learning Objective 20 (527-531): Group Differences in IQ: The Science and the Politics — Reconciling Racial Differences
1. How do women and men compare on IQ measures? Which mental abilities do women excel at? Which mental abilities do men excel at?
2. How might the sex differences in specific mental abilities be explained? What is some of the evidence for biological explanations? What is some of the evidence for environmental explanations? What does the environmental explanation suggest?
3. How do environmental differences between groups of people potentially contribute to IQ differences between those groups?