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Unit 6 Learning Objectives and Study Guide

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Unit 6

Unit 6: Psychopathology and Psychotherapy (chapters 11-12)


Learning Objective 1 (pp. 381-382): Conceptions of Mental Illness — Biological Dysfunction

1. What is psychopathology?

2. What criteria are used to describe mental disorder?

3. What does statistical rarity mean?

4. What is subjective distress? What role does distress play in identifying abnormality?

5. What is impairment? What are some examples of impairment?

6. What is meant by societal disapproval? How is it related to mental disorder?

7. What was Thomas Szasz’s main criticism of mental illness?


Learning Objective 2 (pp. 382-385): Historical Conceptions of Mental Illness — Cultural Universality

1. How was mental illness explained in the Middle Ages? How was mental illness treated during this time?

2. How was mental illness explained during the Renaissance? How was mental illness treated during this time?

3. What was the role of asylums? What were the positive and negative influences of asylums?

4. What are positive and negative effects of deinstitutionalization in the modern era?

5. What does culture-bound syndrome mean? What are some examples from your book?

6. What does cultural universality mean?


Learning Objective 3 (pp. 387-392): Special Considerations in Psychiatric Classification and Diagnosis — Involuntary Commitment

1. What is the DSM-5? How is it used to diagnose mental disorders?

2. What does it mean to “think organic”?

3. What is prevalence of mental disorders? Where would you find this information?

4. What is the biopsychosocial approach to mental disorders?

5. What are some criticisms of the DSM-5 mentioned in the book?

6. What does insanity mean? Where is this term used? How often is the concept of insanity applied?

7. What is involuntary commitment? In what situations might someone be subject to involuntary or civil commitment?


Learning Objective 4 (pp. 392-396): Anxiety-Related Disorders — Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders

1. What is generalized anxiety disorder? What are the typical symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder?

2. What are the symptoms of panic attacks?

3. What is panic disorder?

4. What is a phobic disorder? What are the different types of phobias mentioned in the book?

5. What is posttraumatic stress disorder? What are symptoms associated with posttraumatic stress disorder?

6. What is obsessive-compulsive disorder?

7. How do obsessions differ from compulsions?


Learning Objective 5 (pp. 396-399): The Roots of Pathological Anxiety, Fear, and Repetitive Thoughts and Behaviors — Anxiety: Biological Influences

1. How do learning models explain the development of anxiety disorders?

2. What is catastrophizing?

3. How might genes relate to a person’s anxiety?


Learning Objective 6 (pp. 399-403): Mood Disorders and Suicide — Depression: The Role of Biology

1. What is major depressive disorder? What are symptoms of major depressive disorder?

2. What are the gender differences in depression?

3. How does the interpersonal model explain major depression?

4. How does the behavioral model explain major depression?

5. How does the cognitive model explain depression?

6. What is depressive realism?

7. What is learned helplessness and how does it help explain depression?

8. What biological factors might be contributing to affective disorders?


Learning Objective 7 (pp. 403-405): Bipolar Disorder: When Mood Goes to Extremes — Suicide: Facts and Fictions

1. What is a manic episode?

2. What is bipolar disorder?

3. How prevalent is suicide?

4. How is gender related to suicide?

5. What is the best predictor of suicide?

6. What makes suicide intervention difficult?


Learning Objective 8 (pp. 406-408): Personality Disorders — Causes of Psychopathic Personality

1. What are personality disorders?

2. What is borderline personality disorder?

3. How does Marsha Linehan’s sociobiological model explain borderline personality disorder?

4. What are the traits associated with psychopathic personality?


Learning Objective 9 (pp. 411-413): The Enigma of Schizophrenia — Grossly Disorganized Behavior and Catatonia

1. What is schizophrenia? Why has it been called the most severe psychological disorder?

2. What are delusions?

3. What are hallucinations? What are the most common types of hallucinations in schizophrenia?

4. What are catatonic symptoms in schizophrenia?


Learning Objective 10 (pp. 413-416): Explanations for Schizophrenia: The Roots of a Shattered Mind — Vulnerability to Schizophrenia: Diathesis-Stress Models

1. What is expressed emotion? How is it related to schizophrenia?

2. What abnormalities in brain structure are associated with schizophrenia?

3. What is the relationship between dopamine and schizophrenia?

4. What is the difference between positive symptoms and negative symptoms of schizophrenia? What are the typical positive symptoms of schizophrenia? What are the typical negative symptoms?

5. How has research shown a genetic influence on schizophrenia?

6. How do diathesis-stress models account for schizophrenia?


Learning Objective 11 (pp. 416-423): Childhood Disorders: Recent Controversies — The Controversy Over Early-Onset Bipolar Disorder

1. What are symptoms of autism spectrum disorders?

2. What are symptoms of Asperger’s disorder?

3. How might changes in diagnostic practices account for the autism “epidemic”?

4. What are symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder?

5. Describe the controversy about early-onset bipolar disorder and ADHD diagnoses.

6. Is there any real relationship between vaccinations and autism spectrum disorders?


Learning Objective 12 (pp. 424-429): Psychological and Biological Treatments — What Does It Take To Be An Effective Psychotherapist

1. What is psychotherapy?

2. Who is likely to seek psychological treatment?

3. Describe the importance of matching the client’s and therapist’s gender or ethnicity.

4. Who is likely to benefit most from psychological treatment?

5. What are the educational degrees held by psychiatrists and clinical psychologists?

6. What is the difference between a professional and a paraprofessional? What are the pros and cons of receiving treatment from a professional or a paraprofessional?

7. What are the characteristics of an effective psychotherapist?


Learning Objective 13 (pp. 429-432): Insight Therapies: Acquiring Understanding — Psychodynamic Therapies Evaluated Scientifically

1. What is the goal of insight therapies?

2. What beliefs are central to psychodynamic therapies?

3. What is free association?

4. What is the difference between manifest content and latent content of dreams?

5. What is transference?

6. What is different about Neo-Freudians’ goals of treatment compared to Freud’s goal?

7. What is interpersonal therapy?

8. What are some of the scientific concerns with psychodynamic therapies?


Learning Objective 14 (pp. 432-434): Humanistic Psychotherapy: Achieving Our Potential — Humanistic Therapies Evaluated Scientifically

1. What are the goals of humanistic therapies?

2. What do humanistic psychologists emphasize in treatment?

3. Describe Carl Rogers’s person-centered therapy.

4. What three conditions must a humanistic psychotherapist satisfy?

5. What is unconditional positive regard and what is its role in treatment?

6. What is the goal of Gestalt Therapy?


Learning Objective 15 (pp.437-440): Behavioral and Cognitive-Behavioral Approaches: Changing Maladaptive Actions and Thoughts — Exposure: Fringe and Fad Techniques

1. What are the most notable features of behavioral treatment?

2. What is systematic desensitization therapy? What is an anxiety hierarchy, and how is it used in systematic desensitization therapy?

3. How does dismantling contribute to scientific critique of systematic desensitization?

4. What does it mean when a treatment (e.g., systematic desensitization) is done in vivo?

5. How does flooding work? What is response prevention, and why is it a crucial component of flooding therapy?

6. What is virtual reality treatment? When might a therapist use one or the other?

7. What are Thought Field Therapy (TFT) and EMDR, and what have we learned from research reviews about these treatments?


Learning Objective 16 (pp. 440-441): Modeling in Therapy: Learning by Watching — Operant and Classical Conditioning Procedures

1. How is participant modeling used in behavioral treatment?

2. What are the goals of assertion training?

3. What is behavioral rehearsal?

4. What is a token economy? What type of conditioning is used in a token economy?

5. How do aversion therapies work?


Learning Objective 17 (pp. 441-444): Cognitive-Behavioral and Third Wave Therapies: Learning to Think and Act Differently — CBT and Third Wave Approaches Evaluated Scientifically

1. What are the core assumptions of cognitive-behavioral therapies?

2. What are the key assumptions of Albert Ellis’s rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT)? What does Ellis mean by “awfulizing”?

3. What are the key emphases of Aaron Beck’s cognitive therapy?

4. Why are some recent therapies (e.g., acceptance and commitment therapy and dialectical behavior therapy) called third wave therapies?

5. What is an eclectic approach?


Learning Objective 18 (pp. 445-449): Is Psychotherapy Effective? — Empirically Supported Treatments

1. What is a meta-analysis?

2. What have we learned from research on the effectiveness of psychotherapies (especially compared to lack of treatment)?

3. Which treatments have shown the most effectiveness for anxiety disorders?

4. What are the common factors found in various therapies?

5. Why might ineffective therapies appear to be helpful?

6. What does it mean if a treatment is empirically supported?


Learning Objective 19 (pp. 451-455): Biological Treatments: Medication, Electrical Stimulation, and Surgery — Evaluating Psychopharmacotherapy

1. Which type of biological therapy is most commonly used today?

2. What disorders do antipsychotic drugs treat? What is tardive dyskinesia?

3. What concerns are associated with prescribing SSRI antidepressants to adolescents?

4. What concerns are associated with prescribing medication for children’s ADHD?

5. How effective are antidepressant medications compared to CBT?


Learning Objective 20 (pp. 455-463): Electrical Stimulation: Conceptions and Misconceptions — Psychosurgery: An Absolute Last Resort

1. What are the examples of biomedical treatments included in the book?

2. What is electroconvulsive shock therapy (ECT)? When is this therapy used?

3. What are potential side effects of ECT?

4. What are the improvement rates for people who undergo ECT?

5. What is psychosurgery?


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