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Unit 5 Learning Objectives and Study Guide

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Unit 5

UNIT 5: Social Psychology and Personality (chapters 9-10)


Learning Objective 1 (pp. 298-303): What is Social psychology? — Humans as a Social Species

1. What is social psychology? What kinds of research questions do social psychologists study?

2. What is the need-to-belong theory?

3. How does social comparison theory explain knowledge about oneself?

4. What is mass hysteria? How is it an example of social contagion?

5. What conditions give rise to social facilitation?

6. What conditions give rise to social disruption?


Learning Objective 2 (pp. 303-304): The Fundamental Attribution Error: The Great Lesson of Social Psychology

1. What are attributions?

2. What are dispositional influences on behavior?

3. What are situational influences on behavior?

4. What tendency is described by the fundamental attribution error?

5. What are some explanations for why we commit the fundamental attribution error?

6. How do cultural factors influence the likelihood of making the fundamental attribution error?


Learning Objective 3 (pp. 305-307): Social Influence: Conformity and Obedience — Conformity: The Asch Studies

1. What is conformity?

2. How did Solomon Asch’s research demonstrate conformity?

3. How do cultural factors influence conformity in Solomon Asch’s design?

4. How does gender relate to likelihood of conformity in research?


Learning Objective 4 (pp. 307-309): Deindividuation: Losing Our Typical Identities

1. What is deindividuation?

2. What factors tend to contribute to deindividuation?

3. How did Philip Zimbardo's Stanford Prison Study demonstrate deindividuation?

4. What does the Stanford Prison Study say about the causes of recent events, including prisoner abuse in the Abu Ghraib prison?


Learning Objective 5 (pp. 309-312): Groupthink

1. What is groupthink?

2. What real-world events have been explained using the idea of groupthink?

3. What conditions increase the likelihood of groupthink? And what conditions or techniques can decrease it?

4. What is group polarization?

5. How is groupthink potentially related to cults?

6. What is the inoculation effect? How can it be used to reduce the persuasive influence of cults?


Learning Objective 6 312-316): Obedience: The Psychology of Following Orders

1. What is obedience? Where does the influence originate in the case of obedience?

2. How is obedience related to events such as the Holocaust or the My Lai massacre?

3. How did Stanley Milgram demonstrate extreme obedience in his research?

4. What did experts predict about Milgram’s research before it was conducted?

5. In Milgram's research on obedience, what factors tended to increase obedience? What factors tended to reduce obedience?


Learning Objective 7 (pp. 316-318): Helping and Harming Others: Prosocial Behavior and Aggression — Safety in Numbers or Danger in Numbers? Bystander Nonintervention

1. What is prosocial behavior?

2. What is bystander nonintervention?

3. What is pluralistic ignorance? How does it contribute to bystander nonintervention?

4. What is diffusion of responsibility? How does it contribute to bystander nonintervention?

5. What did Darley and Latané’s research demonstrate about the bystander effect?


Learning Objective 8 (pp. 318-321): Social Loafing: With a Little Too Much Help From My Friends — Prosocial Behavior and Altruism

1. What is social loafing? What are its consequences?

2. What is brainstorming? How effective is it as a way to generate creative ideas?

3. What is altruism?

4. What is the enlightenment effect? How is it related to altruism?


Learning Objective 9 (pp. 321-322): Aggression: Why We Hurt Others — Situational Influences on Aggression

1. What is aggression?

2. How has the amount of human aggression changed in recent history?

3. How is interpersonal provocation related to aggression?

4. How is frustration related to aggression?

5. How are media influences related to aggression?

6. What are aggressive cues? How are they related to aggression?

7. How is autonomic arousal related to aggression?

8. How is alcohol consumption related to aggression?

9. How is temperature related to aggression?


Learning Objective 10 (pp. 323-324): Aggression: Individual, Gender, and Cultural Differences

1. Which personality traits are most strongly associated with aggression?

2. How is gender related to the amount and type of aggression an individual commits? What explanations attempt to account for this relationship?

3. What is a culture of honor, and how is it related to aggression?


Learning Objective 11 (pp. 324-326): Attitudes and Persuasion: Changing Minds — Origins of Attitudes

1. What is a belief?

2. What is an attitude? How is an attitude different from a belief?

3. What factors tend to strengthen the relationship between attitudes and behavior?

4. What is self-monitoring? How are different levels of self-monitoring related to attitudes and behavior?

5. How does the recognition heuristic explain some of our beliefs?


Learning Objective 12 (pp. 326-327): Attitude Change: Wait, Wait, I Just Changed My Mind

1. What is cognitive dissonance? How can our discomfort with cognitive dissonance explain attitude change?

2. What is self-perception theory? How does this theory explain attitude change?


Learning Objective 13 (pp. 327-331): Persuasion: Humans as Salespeople

1. In the dual process model of persuasion, what are the two routes of attitude change?

2. What is the focus of the central route to persuasion?

3. What is the focus of the peripheral route to persuasion?

4. How does the foot-in-the-door persuasion technique work?

5. How does the door-in-the-face persuasion technique work?

6. How does the low-ball persuasion technique work?


Learning Objective 14 (pp. 331-334): Prejudice and Discrimination — Discrimination

1. What is prejudice?

2. What are stereotypes? How are stereotypes formed?

3. What is the ultimate attribution error? How is it related to prejudice?

4. What are in-groups and out-groups?

5. What is the out-group homogeneity bias? How is it related to prejudice?

6. What is discrimination? How does it differ from prejudice?


Learning Objective 15 (pp. 335-337): Roots of Prejudice: A Tangled Web — Combating Prejudice: Some Remedies

1. What is the scapegoat hypothesis? What are we doing if we treat someone as a scapegoat?

2. What is the just-world hypothesis? How does belief in a just world contribute to prejudice?

3. What is the difference between extrinsic and intrinsic religiosity? How are they related to prejudice?

4. What is the difference between explicit and implicit prejudice?

5. What is the Implicit Associations Test (IAT)? How is it related to prejudice?

6. What did the Robber's Cave research by Muzafer Sherif teach us about reducing prejudice?

7. What has research on jigsaw classrooms taught us about reducing prejudice?


Learning Objective 16 (pp. 344-349): Personality: What Is It and How Can We Study It?

1. What is personality?

2. What are shared environmental factors? What are nonshared environmental factors? How are they each related to personality?

3. What are molecular genetic studies? What do they attempt to discover about personality?


Learning Objective 17 (pp. 350-357): Psychoanalytic Theory: The Controversial Legacy of Sigmund Freud and his Followers

1. What is the core assumption of unconscious motivation in psychoanalytic theory?

2. According to psychoanalytic theory, what is the role of the id?

3. According to psychoanalytic theory, what is the role of the ego?

4. According to psychoanalytic theory, what is the role of the superego?

5. What are some limitations of psychoanalytic theory when evaluated scientifically?


Learning Objective 18 (pp. 360-363): Behavioral & Social Learning Theories of Personality

1. What is the focus of behavioral and social learning theories of personality?

2. What kind of influences create determinism in the behavioral view of personality?

3. How does social learning theory differ from strict behaviorism?

4. Why do social learning theorists refer to determinism as reciprocal determinism?

5. What is a locus of control? How is an internal locus of control different from an external locus of control? How is locus of control associated with psychological distress?

6. What are some criticisms of B. F. Skinner's radical behavioral approach to understanding personality?


Learning Objective 19 (pp. 363-365): Humanistic Models of Personality: The Third Force

1. What is the humanistic model of personality? Why is it a "third force" in personality psychology?

2. How are free will and determinism viewed in the humanistic model of personality?

3. What are the three components of Carl Rogers’s view of personality?

4. What are conditions of worth? Why do we suffer from conditions of worth?

5. What is incongruence? What are the effects of incongruence?

6. Describe Abraham Maslow's view of self-actualization. How is it related to peak experiences?

7. What are some criticisms of the humanistic model of personality?


Learning Objective 20 (pp. 365-371): Trait Models of Personality: Consistencies in Our Behavior

1. What are personality traits?

2. What is factor analysis? How does factor analysis help to discover personality traits?

3. What are the Big Five personality traits? Be able to recognize examples of each.

4. How do cultural differences of individualism and collectivism relate to personality traits?

5. What does Walter Mischel suggest is missing from trait theory?

6. Why does Hans Eysenck refer to sensitivity of the reticular activating system (RAS) in reference to extraversion? How does RAS activity relate to extraversion and introversion?


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