Psychology

 

Psychology 101
Online Practice Test
Unit 3

 

* Please note: The questions in the practice tests are in the order of the learning objectives, so question number 1 is from learning objective 1, question 2 from learning objective 2, and so on. This is not true of the graded tests, which are randomized.

* When you finish this quiz and "check quiz" to grade it, you will receive a score at the bottom of the page and the correct answers will appear highlighted in yellow like this.

 

  1. Cody carried a C average throughout his high school career until his last semester, when he discovered that he would be ineligible to accept a football scholarship to the college of his choice without at least an A- average in that semester. In his last semester he achieved an A average. This example illustrates the role of motivation in

    relating affect to behavior.
    relating emotional experiences to behavior.
    explaining fluctuations in behavior over time.


  2. The evolutionary perspective in psychology is most closely related to which of these theories of motivation?

    Instinct doctrine
    Incentive theory
    Drive reduction theory


  3. Jeremy works very hard at school and almost always gets A’s. According to drive reduction theory, Jeremy's motivation for studying hard is most likely due to a

    primary drive.
    secondary drive.
    primary reinforcer.


  4. Annie has just finished watching a movie about cement mixing that she thought was long and boring. According to the arousal theory of motivation, Annie will most likely __________ next.

    do something exciting
    read about cement mixing
    go to sleep


  5. Psychologists have defined learning as

    the modification through experience of preexisting behavior and understanding.
    the systematic organization of information that facilitates later recall and use.
    the adaptation of instinctual responses to new environments.


  6. Which of the following would be a conditioned response due to classical conditioning?

    Reflexively feeling hungry when you hear the bell indicating the microwave has finished cooking.
    Turning off an alarm clock as soon as it rings.
    A dog coming back after being called.


  7. In classical conditioning, a neutral stimulus comes to produce the same response as another stimulus because the two stimuli have been:

    similar in their modality
    used to produce the same consequence
    paired together


  8. Which of the following is true of taste-aversion conditioning?

    It appears to have an evolutionary basis.
    It requires sickness to occur very quickly after eating for it to work.
    It occurs most readily when sickness is paired with visual stimuli, rather than taste or smell.


  9. Veronica is deathly afraid of pink highlighters. To overcome her highlighter phobia, Veronica saw a therapist who extinguished her fear of highlighters and conditioned her to learn a new relaxing response to highlighters. The therapist's technique is known as

    systematic desensitization.
    reconditioning.
    operant conditioning.


  10. Stephanie has learned that if she cries after being put to bed, her parents will often return and pick her up. Crying is

    a conditioned stimulus for Stephanie.
    a conditioned response by Stephanie.
    an operant response by Stephanie.


  11. Tyrell wants to teach his two daughters, Sarah and Mia, to practice their golf swings every day. Each time after Sarah finishes practicing, he gives her $5, and each time after Mia finishes practicing, he gives her a handful of M&Ms. Sarah is receiving a __________ reinforcer, and Mia is receiving a __________ reinforcer.

    secondary; secondary
    secondary; primary
    primary; secondary


  12. Escape conditioning is a type of

    negative reinforcement.
    positive reinforcement.
    punishment.


  13. One day while Ted was cleaning his aquarium, he noticed the heater was still plugged in. He reached down with a wet hand and tried to unplug the cord. As a result, Ted received quite a shock. After that experience, Ted has never attempted to unplug an electrical cord with a wet hand. The effect the shock had on Ted's behavior is known as

    negative reinforcement.
    punishment.
    shaping.


  14. Theresa discovers that reading her textbook throughout the week before a sociology test is an effective study strategy. She decides to try the same thing when studying for psychology quizzes. Her study behavior has

    discriminated.
    been classically conditioned.
    generalized.


  15. Heidi continues to play the slot machines hour after hour because they provide reinforcement on a __________ schedule.

    fixed-interval
    variable-interval
    variable-ratio


  16. Learned helplessness involves learning that

    one has inferior mental abilities.
    there is no relationship between one's behaviors and their consequences.
    punishment will follow certain behaviors.


  17. The first time visiting a local mall most people will have a difficult time finding their way around, but after several visits they will find it very easy to get where they need to go. This is because people have

    developed an appropriate conditioned response.
    experienced observational learning.
    developed a cognitive map of the mall.


  18. Buford and Julian are in preschool. Buford watches as Julian gets punished for eating paste. After that incident, Buford remembers Julian's punishment and decides he will not try to eat the paste. Biologically, social learning works (in part) due to the operations of

    the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus.
    dopamine antagonists.
    mirror neurons in the brain.


  19. Austin is a very aggressive child who watches a lot of violent programs on television. Research has found a statistically significant, positive correlation between watching television and behaving aggressively. Based on this correlational evidence, which of the following statements is true about Austin's aggression?

    Watching violent programs on television caused Austin to behave aggressively.
    Austin has always been aggressive, and so he prefers to watch violent shows.
    Several factors could be influencing both Austin's aggression and his preference for violent shows.


  20. Researchers investigating the differences in scholastic achievement between American and Japanese students have observed that

    Japanese teachers tend to place less emphasis on cooperative work among students.
    Japanese teachers provide their students with more immediate feedback.
    Japanese students spend fewer days in school during the year.